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miércoles, 7 de septiembre de 2011

The theory of multiple intelligences of H. Gardner


INTELLIGENCE FOR ALL.

By: JACQUELINNE CRISTINA RIVERA OCHOA. CC MAE.



Introducción.

Introduction.

La teoría de Las inteligencias múltiples de Gardner, nos permite conocer el potencial del cerebro humano, y las distintas inteligencias que pueden estar presentes en nosotros en determinados momentos de nuestra vida.


The theory of multiple intelligences Gardner reveals the potential of the human brain and the different intelligences that may be present in us at certain times in our lives.

Abstract.

Abstract.

Este texto hace una aproximación a la teoría de las inteligencias múltiples de Gardner, analiza las siete inteligencias iniciales y las que se encuentran en proceso de incorporación, incluye una relación  de las inteligencias y algunos trabajos posibles para quien las desarrolle, se incluye la importancia que tiene para la educación esta teoría y como su aplicación podría mejorar la educación en todos los niveles existentes.


This text serves as an approximation to the theory of multiple intelligences Gardner analyzes the initial and the seven intelligences that are in the process of incorporation, includes a list of intelligence and some possible jobs for anyone who develops, it includes the importance education has this theory and its implementation could improve education at all existing levels.





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Howard Gardner viewed intelligence as 'the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural setting' (Gardner & Hatch, 1989). He reviewed the literature using eight criteria or 'signs' of an intelligence.






This  definition of intelligence is totally different the classic definition but  is more extensive and inclusive, is very interesting,
Gardner uses the intelligence and how to solve everyday problems, I consider it the most successful theory that I know about intelligence.

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I know much people are intelligent for this perspective, for example, the baker, teacher, dancer etc.
I think about all people intelligent but different; know a Gardner affirm my personal opinion.

In the heyday of the psychometric and behaviorist eras, it was generally believed that intelligence was a single entity that was inherited; and that human beings - initially a blank slate - could be trained to learn anything, provided that it was presented in an appropriate way.


In my personal experience believe the intelligence is no more the forms of resolution a trouble, Gardner sees the difference’s and decide make studies for the explication this phenomen.





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Nowadays an increasing number of researchers believe precisely the opposite; that there exists a multitude of intelligences, quite independent of each other; that each intelligence has its own strengths and constraints; that the mind is far from unencumbered at birth; and that it is unexpectedly difficult to teach things that go against early 'naive' theories of that challenge the natural lines of force within an intelligence and its matching domains. (Gardner 1993)

Contrary to behaviorism psychometrics and intelligence not only can be measured or observed, speaks of that can develop in multiple ways, so we have different types or levels of intelligence.

 
To develop this theory we should not let outside factors such as culture, social and economic environment, teaching-learning processes, etc.

One of the main impetuses for this movement has been Howard Gardner's work. He has been, in Smith and Smith's (1994) terms, a paradigm shifter. Howard Gardner has questioned the idea that intelligence is a single entity, that it results from a single factor, and that it can be measured simply via IQ tests.


Gardner changes the paradigm of intelligence to rule out the use of standardized tests to measure intelligence.
 I agree because in our country are using tests that are not adapted to our culture and why people are classified as poor, because they are not the appropriate test to our academic and cultural level.


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The intelligent test…

The test will serve only as a reference on some sort of intelligence of that person, it is common that only used for logical mathematical intelligence and verbal skills for psychology currently only assessment tools that indicate how the person is the areas you mentioned, such as test Raven's Progressive Matrices, dominos test 48, etc.
As psychology this theory helps to understand the learning problems of human beings, it allows us to take a broader view of the phenomenon of learning.

Example Raven test.
 







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He has also challenged the cognitive development work of Piaget.  Bringing forward evidence to show that at any one time a child may be at very different stages for example, in number development and spatial/visual maturation, Howard Gardner has successfully undermined the idea that knowledge at any one particular developmental stage hangs together in a structured whole.     


Piaget assumes consider intelligence as an adaptation process that constantly checks between the individual and socio-cultural sphere, this dialectical process involves two simultaneous and inseparable moments:

    1. The transformation of the environment by the action of the subject individual's attempt to permanently change the environment to assimilate to their own needs is what Piaget called assimilation.

    2. The ongoing transformation of the subject, from environmental requirements. Each new stimulus from the environment or the organism itself implies a modification of existing mindsets, in order to accommodate the new situation. This is what Piaget called accommodation.
Gardner is not required to be in a stage to learn something specific.
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Howard Gardner on multiple intelligences - the initial listing
Howard Gardner initially formulated a list of seven intelligences. His listing was provisional. The first two have been typically valued in schools; the next three are usually associated with the arts; and the final two are what Howard Gardner called 'personal intelligences'
(Gardner 1999)
 

Gardner intelligences so classified
1.   Linguistic intelligence.

2.   Logical-mathematical intelligence.


3.   Musical intelligence.

4.   Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.


Gardner's research was not limited to a group of human intelligence more extensive than was assumed but generated a renewed pragmatic definition of the concept of intelligence.
Instead of considering the "superiority" human in terms of scores on a standardized scale (drops the IQ test)

Gardner defines intelligence as:
The ability to solve everyday problems.
The ability to generate new problems to solve.


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5.   Spatial intelligence.

6.   Interpersonal intelligence.


7.   Intrapersonal intelligence.
Were initially identified seven intelligences that Gardner now has spread to ten classifications of intelligence, add the following.
8.   Naturalist Intelligence

9.   Spiritual/Existential intelligence.

10. Moral intelligence.


·      The ability to create products or provide valuable services within their own cultural sphere.

This theory is more inclusive because not only domains evaluated numerically or high-volume academic meaningless to the student, taking into account the above we can understand why some people do not need much knowledge to make fortunes, but just as creative skills can provide the means economical to live, there are people fixing cars or computers have enough to live well and most importantly enjoy what they do.
 










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Linguistic intelligence:

Involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic


This intelligence with this investigation is set to work on me, at first it was difficult because I did not understand much theory and even more complicated by being in another language, to begin to develop the faculty of language I could understand the theory and this work is a sample it, I realized that also possess this linguistic intelligence.

The writers have the intelligence to see their work as we do know places or sensations through his books, just as happens with poets and people who have a great ability to relate specific events experienced by themselves or others.
 







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Logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. In Howard Gardner's words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.


logical mathematical intelligence:


Can see in the market women, as well as scientists who study physics, mathematics, chemistry, showing that ability to work with numbers are placed with a high intelligence at this level, also note that although there is little ability language in some cases have no difficulty in understanding situations numerical example would be a rapid adaptation to market was the process of dollarization.


 







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Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence.

Musical intelligence:
 
Learning is facilitated when we encourage children to music or musical beats to make some sort of movement with your body, we must not ignore also the people who have great skills in playing a musical instrument, reading music scales and make a musical composition. Currently there are few popular artists who have some type of formal education but thanks to these musical intelligence skills are recognized throughout the world.
 






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Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
Entails the potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related.


 
Bodily kinestesic intelligence:
 This type of intelligence is related to the athletes because they have a corporal control and motor skills in some special cases we could speak of the soccer players, tennis players worldwide who have excelled with this intelligence.
 
 


Activities that could easily develop a person with this intelligence would
be:
Rhythmic dance.
Athletics.
Handcrafts.






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Spatial intelligence:
 Involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas.

Spatial intelligence :

Provides the ability to think in three dimensions, As do the sailors, pilots, sculptors, painters and architects